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Buffalo TS-XH4.0TL/R6 NAS Recovery

Hardware and RAID configuration

Buffalo TS-XH4.0TL/R6 with 4x1TB drives in a RAID 6 configuration.


The NAS displayed error E13 and E26 and stopped working. The customer performed a firmware update. The NAS then displayed error code E30 (drive malfunctioning).


  • RAID rotation analysis confirmed a RAID 6 configuration.
  • One drive did not belong to the RAID and a second drive was stale. Effectively this was a 4-drive RAID 6 without two drives. A RAID 6 without two drives is recoverable if the algorithm to generate the Q-parity data is known. The algorithm used by this NAS was not published by the manufacturer.
  • Our analysis also showed that the RAID hosted an XFS volume. The primary super block of the volume was lost.


  • We were able to determine that the Q-parity data was based on the widely-used Reed-Solomon encoding scheme.
  • We manually recreated the missing XFS metadata.
  • We then ran File Scavenger® and recovered the data. File Scavenger® version 4.3 or later supports RAID 6 that uses the Reed-Solomon encoding scheme.


All files were restored with the original name and folder path.

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